Expert clinician-educators review the assessment and management of patients with medical comorbidities undergoing surgical procedures. Also discussed: postoperative nausea and vomiting, preoperative blood pressure control, postoperative headache, and fasting before surgery. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in the postoperative period for patients with renal impairment, hereditary or acquired coagulation disorders, or history of recurrent VTE and the best VTE prophylaxis in surgery will be reviewed. Preoperative validated risk assessment tools, mitigation strategies for identified comorbidities, and management of postoperative complications is emphasized. Additional topics will include perioperative medication management; cardiac, pulmonary, and COVID-19 testing and frailty risk indices with modification strategies; postoperative cardiac complications; managing cannabis, suboxone, and methadone; using direct oral anticoagulants; treating postoperative delirium; and new diabetes medications.